Digital Asset Liquidity Protocol

Rahul Rumalla, David Tomaselli, & Daniel Dewar

Version 0.4 August 14, 2018

First published April 07, 2018

PDF Version - English


Most digital assets are subjected to continuous or limitless consumption, upon which relative economic incentives are distributed to the asset owners. The transaction data representing the asset consumption is the core proof of the eventual payout. The Digital Asset Liquidity Protocol (DALP) allows for tokenization of these proofs of consumption into Non-Fungible Assets for the purpose of achieving liquidity on a decentralized exchange (DEX). The protocol aims to build an open standard and a shared interface upon which marketplaces, exchanges, investors and makers can exchange these tokenized Non-Fungible Assets. With a dual token model, the protocol allows peers to trade a Non-Fungible Asset-Backed Token (TNFT) that represent the collateralized Proofs of Consumption as Non-Fungible Asset(s) in exchange for its notional value in economy or utility tokens (TNFXC). Upon the creation of the Non-Fungible Token, TNFT, it can be either be held by the counterparty until the repayment remittance or re-traded for faster liquidity. The protocol’s main objective is to enable immediate liquidity upon a record of the asset’s Proof of Consumption on the network.

1) Introduction

Traditionally, high-yield assets accrue value over a long period of time for investors, generally meaning that the asset-holders are unable to quickly capitalize on the value of their position. These traditional assets also have the challenge of illiquidity — they cannot be easily traded, locking up asset owners’ capital.

This challenge is doubly extended to non-fungible assets that historically have never had access to efficient markets due to challenges arising from their non-fungible nature. The DALP overcomes these challenges by facilitating the creation of orderly, decentralized and efficient markets for non-fungible assets. High-yield non-fungible assets to be traded on these new markets include licenses, copyrights, patents, accounts receivable and other financial instruments.

2) Proof of Consumption

Any consumption event on an asset that results in an economic incentive (fiat or otherwise) to the asset owner is considered as a Proof of Consumption.

The massive consumer shift to digital media consumption has transformed the media industry from a manual, physical, product-based business to a digital, transaction-based business with a drastically narrowed bottom-line. However, the media content’s transaction data, which can be streams on Spotify, views on YouTube, downloads on the App Store, spins on a Radio Station, or impressions of an Advertisement, are all available in near real-time but go largely unutilized in support of core business processes, in particular liquidity. These transactions are Proofs of Consumption that can be tokenized into Non-Fungible Assets in exchange for liquidity in a decentralized eco-system. Proof of Consumption may be categorized into 2 different incentive models, distinguished by how the transactions are converted to incentives.

2.1 Continuous Incentive Model

The Continuous Incentive Model assumes that the incentives paid out are a function of the quantity of Proof of Consumption transactions. This model can be applied to the payout system of Service Providers like YouTube, Spotify or iTunes App Store where more streams, views or downloads would result in higher incentives.

2.2 Fixed Incentive Model

In the Fixed Incentive Model, a digital asset is under a fixed monetization contract with a Service Provider, which does not take into account the individual consumption transactions. For example, video content licenses on Netflix are subject to a fixed compensation over a fixed period of time, regardless of how many views the content gets. In this model, the Proof of Consumption is either the contract or the license itself.

2.3 Structure

The composition of a Proof of Consumption is a highly generic model. Various data compositions from different source providers are normalized so that they can be denoted with a notional value. The structure of a Proof of Consumption is as follows:

Timestamp Source Asset Type Metric Type Units Price Currency Metadata
July 10th Spotify Music Stream 100 0.004 USD Subscription, Territory, Duration
July 11th YouTube Video View 1000 0.0007 GBP Subscription, Territory, Duration
July 12th iTunes Store Apps Download 10 0.70 EUR Territory
July 12th Kindle Store eBooks Download 1 9.99 USD Territory
Table 2.3.a: An example of Proofs of Consumption in the modern music industry

3) Digital Asset Liquidity Protocol

The Digital Asset Liquidity Protocol (DALP) enables tokenization of Proofs of Consumption into Non-Fungible Assets in order to achieve liquidity in a decentralized network. The assets are represented by a Non-Fungible Token (NFT), enabling peer-to-peer exchange. Through this protocol, Service Providers are able to tokenize their transactions data sets into NFTs while also transparently accounting for the associated incentives to the asset-holders. Investors have the ability to hold on to the NFT until the eventual payment remittance or use a Liquidity Marketplace to trade for faster liquidity. The protocol proposes a dual token model.

TNFT - An EIP721 based non-fungible token to represent the Non-Fungible Asset(s) that are the Proofs of Consumption
TNFXC - An EIP20 based economy token that is the notional value of the Non-Fungible Asset(s)

While the main purpose of the TNFT is to facilitate the issuance of an IOU and to capture the ownership of the asset, TNFXC is the Non-Fungible Exchange Token i.e., an economy token for purpose of trade. All incentives of the network are paid out in TNFXC. All services and products built with the protocol can be accessed using TNFXC.

3.1 Liquidity Network

The Liquidity Network in the implementation of the Digital Asset Liquidity Protocol where different agents participate in the execution of a trade in exchange for pre-programmed network incentives.

3.1.1 Makers

Makers are identified as the network agents that own the digital assets and their Proofs of Consumption. It is the Maker that first publishes the intent for trade in exchange for liquidity on the network.

With the assistance of the relayer, Makers set the various terms for placing a Liquidity Order.

3.1.2 Takers

Takers are the agents that are responsible for supplying liquidity in the network. They fill orders published by the makers and assume the temporary ownership of the Non-Fungible Tokens i.e., the Liquidity Tokens. Takers’ incentives are in making a return on the investment for providing liquidity on a published order.

3.1.3 Suppliers

The Suppliers are the network agents responsible for delivering Proofs of Consumption data sets into the Liquidity Network. They are typically the service providers of the Makers, with whom they have a Service Level Agreement(SLA) that includes two main responsibilities

  1. Periodic economic payouts to Makers for ongoing consumption of their Assets
  2. Delivering the Proofs of Consumption on behalf of the Maker

The delivery of Proofs of Consumption is dependent on whether the supplier is an off-chain entity or an on-chain entity. From Off-Chain suppliers, the process might be straightforward sourcing it in the form of flat files and through API endpoints. However, the on-chain supplier would need to leverage an on-chain oracle.

Suppliers are incentivized (one-time) for their participation in the Liquidity Network by delivering the Proofs of Consumption.

Proof of Consumption

Figure 3.1.3.a: Visualization of sourcing Proofs of Consumption from off-chain and on-chain suppliers

Suppliers are the trusted entities that deliver the eventual remittance to the owner of the Non-Fungible Asset i.e., the Proofs of Consumption on behalf of the Maker.

Some examples of Suppliers are businesses that operate as Video Hosting Service, Music Streaming Platform, E-Commerce Website, Gaming App Store, E-Book Store, PodCast Station etc. Amazon would be a supplier delivering the sales of products and YouTube a supplier delivering reports of monetized content views.

3.1.4 Relayers

Relayers play an integral part in the Liquidity Network by aggregating Liquidity Orders issued by the Makers with the retail investors on the network. The order book is maintained in a centralized manner that provide the Takers the ability to browse through and fill orders. The filled order is then published on the Ethereum blockchain through Smart Contracts. An agreed upon fee is collected from the Taker to facilitate the trade.

The other key function a Relayer plays on the network is to source the Proofs of Consumption from the Suppliers and Tokenize them to be represented as a Non-Fungible Liquidity Token. Relayers have the opportunity to leverage a business model by collection subscription fees in economy tokens TNFXC for these value added services.

Actors Network Value Add Incentive(s)
Makers Sells tokenized asset as orders TNFT(Oi) Gains liquidity in TNFXC for sale of TNFT
Takers Liquidates orders by purchasing TNFT(Oi) Discounted purchase earning TNFXC returns
Resell TNFT in secondary markets
Suppliers Supplies Proofs of Consumption. Payment remittance Earn TNFXC for supplying data
Relayers Tokenizing assets
Order settlement
Earn TNFXC in transaction fees
Table 3.1.4.a: The matrix showing different actors, their roles and their incentives using the Non-Fungible Liquidity Protocol

3.2 Primary Market Liquidity

In the example below, an Asset Owner (Maker) and a Taker have negotiated and reached agreement to trade an order representing the tokenized Non-Fungible Assets which are the Proofs of Consumptions from a Service Provider. The Exchange Contract is an Ethereum smart contract that executes the functions. The general process is:

Primary Market

Figure 3.2.a: Example of an order execution sequence between two peers.

3.3 Secondary Markets

In the second scenario shown below, the initial Taker decides to resell the NFT on a secondary market, causing adjustment in ownership and IOU remittance. In a good Secondary Market scenario, the process is slightly altered:

Secondary Market

Figure 3.3.a: Example of an order execution sequence with a secondary taker scenario.

4) Specification

This section captures the specification of the off-chain relayer API that helps with order discovery among the peers and the mechanics of the Non-Fungible Exchange Smart Contract that interfaces with the Ethereum Blockchain.

4.1 Relayer Order API

This API is hosted off-chain by the Relayer to maintain its order books. All endpoint requests assume that the Content-Type: application/json header is passed.

4.1.1 POST /api/:version/orders

Creates and publishes a new order on the Relayer. The payload captures the Maker’s signed intent to trade for the specified set of terms. On success, the endpoint would return an order Id. The order is signed with the Maker’s Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA), which can be used to validate the origin and integrity of the order.

  "makerAddress": "",
  "makerAmount": 0,
  "takerReturn": 0,
  "relayerFee": 0,
  "expiration": "",
  "repaymentDue": "",
  "nonce": 0,
  "v": "",
  "r": "",
  "s": ""

  "orderId": 0

4.1.2 POST /api/:version/orders/:orderId/cancel

Called by the Maker to cancel the published order on the Relayer’s order book

  "orderId": 0

  "success": true

4.1.3 GET /api/:version/orders/:orderId

Fetches the order for the given orderId.

  "makerAddress": "",
  "makerAmount": 0,
  "takerAddress": "",
  "takerAmount": 0,
  "relayerFee": 0
  "takerReturn": 0,
  "expiration": "",
  "repaymentDue": "",
  "nonce": 0,
  "v": "",
  "r": "",
  "s": ""

4.2 Non-Fungible Exchange Contract

The Non-Fungible Exchange Contract (NFXC) is the main smart contract that a Relayer interacts with to publish a filled signed order for the agreed upon terms amongst the Maker and the Taker. The contract also houses the functionality to trigger the repayment on the Liquidity Token from the supplier to the buyer.

Upon deployment of the Exchange Contract, the contract addresses capturing the Relayer wallet for fees, the economy token TNFXC used for trade and the Liquidity Token TNFT are set.

4.2.1 Liquidity Order

A Liquidity Order is the atomic unit of trade that captures the Maker’s contract terms and the Taker’s intent to fill.

An order has the following characteristics:

Name Data Type Description
_makerAddress address The Address of the Maker that issued the order
_makerAmount unint256 The principal amount in TNFXC that is being requested by the Maker
_takerAddress address The Address of the Take that has filled the order
_takerAmount unint256 Total units in TNFXC that the taker is transferring (i.e, Principal - Taker Fee)
_relayerFee unint256 Total units in TNFXC that the taker will incur as Fees to the Relayer
_takerReturn unint256 Total units in TNFXC that the taker will make as return on repayment
_repaymentDue unint256 Unix timestamp indicating when the repayment will be made to the Taker from the Supplier
_economyToken address The Address of the EIP20 Token TNFXC which is the main Economy Token
_liquidityToken address The Address of the EIP721 Token TNFT which is the Non-Fungible Token
_nonce uint256 An integer value used to differentiate the hashes of the Liquidity Orders with identical parameters
_v uint8 Recovery Id of the Maker’s ECDSA signature
_r bytes32 32 byte output of the Maker’s ECDSA signature
_s bytes32 32 byte output of the Maker’s ECDSA signature

4.2.2 Contract Interface

interface IExchange {
    function setRelayerWallet(
        address _paperchainWalletAddress
    ) external;

    function setEconomyTokenAddress(
        address _tokenAddress
    ) external;

    function setOrderTokenAddress(
        address _tokenAddress
    ) external;

    function getOrderInfo(
        uint _orderId
    ) external view returns (bytes32, uint256, address);

    function fillOrder(
        uint _orderId,
        address _makerAddress,
        uint256 _makerAmount,
        address _takerAddress,
        uint256 _takerAmount,
        uint256 _relayerFee,
        uint256 _takerReturn,
        uint256 _remittanceDueEpoch,
        uint8 _v,
        bytes32 _r,
        bytes32 _s
    ) public returns (uint256);

    function remitOrder(
        uint _orderId
    ) public;

    function tokenFallback(
        address _from,
        uint256 _value,
        bytes _data
    ) public;

    function withdrawToken(
        address _to,
        address _tokenAddress
    ) public;

4.3 Order Lifecycle

4.3.1 Order Publishing & Discovery

Makers publish their signed intent to trade on the Relayer’s off-chain order books which makes it available for discovery for Takers browsing through. Order terms are set by the Maker and negotiated with the Taker. Since the Relayer is sourcing Proofs of Consumption from the supplier, repaymentDueDate is worked out in conjunction with the Supplier and served to Maker during the publishing phase. For the network services, Relayer specifies a relayerFee which is a deduction from the Maker’s principal amount. Maker specifies the returnFee as the amount from the principal that they are willing to offer the Taker as return for filling the order.

Alice is the Maker that publishes an order with token amount 10,000 TNFXC on July 1st 2018, for which she is hoping to receive liquidity by the expiration July 28th 2018. She indicates that she expects the taker, Bob, would receive his funds by the expected remittance due date September 1st 2018.

Should the order be filled by a Taker, Alice receives 97% of the original posted amount.

4.3.2 Order Fills

Takers browse through the order books of the Relayer to discover and fill the available orders from Makers. While this is facilitate by the Relayer Order API, the action of filling the order is executed through the Smart Contract method fillOrder(). The Smart Contract is designed to validate the Maker’s identity through the ECDSA signature supplied in the request. Upon filling, the Smart Contract makes 3 token transfers

The taker, Bob, sees Alice’s order indicated with its orderId on the marketplace and likes the fact that he can make 2.5% return by the expected repaymentDueDate and he is happy to take that risk for a short term return.

When Bob fills the order, Bob’s wallet has now been debited with 9750 EIP20 token TNFXC and credited with 1 newly minted EIP721 token TNFT. The TNFT is the EIP721 token that is tied to the order that is indicative of Bob’s ownership of the order. The TNFXC(Oi) is the IOU from Alice to Bob.

From the 9750 TNFXC, 50 TNFXC is transferred to the Relayers’s wallet address as 0.5% relayer fee and the remaining 9700 TNFXC is transferred to Alice the maker as the Liquidity Amount.

4.3.3 Repayment Remittance

Relayer and/or the Supplier will be authorized off-chain, by the maker Alice, to remit funds to Bob when her funds become available by the previously mentioned repaymentDueDate. The repayment remittance is accomplished using the remitOrder() function on the Smart Contract.

10,000 TNFXC are transferred from the Supplier to Bob’s wallet. Bob, now having received the funds, has made a return of 250 TNFXC i.e., 2.5% of the 10,000 TNFXC. The associated NFT with the order i.e., TNFT(Oi) is then burned. This relieves Bob of the ownership and the IOU is considered as settled.

Prior to remittance, Bob is free to re-sell his TNFT(Oi) and transfer his ownership to another taker. If this is the case, the Relayer will remit the payment to the current owner of the TNFT(Oi).

  Order state Alice (0xa1b2c30) Bob (0xq1w2e3) Relayer (0xz5x6c7)
Publish Order orderId 1
maker 0xa1b2c30
orderAmt 9700
relayerFee 50
takerReturn 250
expiration July 28 ’18
repaymentDue Sept 1 ’18
Fund Order status Funded
taker 0xq1w2e3
+ 9700 TNFXC - 9700 TNFXC
+ 1 TNFT(O1)
+ 50 TNFXC
Order Repayment status Remitted + 10,000 TNFXC
- 1 TNFT(O1)
- 10,000 TNFXC  
* X is the token supply in Relayer’s wallet
Table 4.3.3.a: Account state changes of an order’s lifecycle on the marketplace

5) Token Utility

The economy token TNFXC is a multi-purpose EIP20 token that allows peers on DALP to transact and to use dApps or any integration services connected to it. Some of the additional uses of the token are:

A custom token in general allows for decoupling from the parent community (like Ethereum), opening up many more possibilities like customized contributions, reward mechanisms and implementing governance structures where or when necessary.

6) NFXC Configuration and Extensibility

While the contract mechanism outlined so far is in a simplistic form, the protocol itself allows for some exciting extensibility per the desired marketplace configuration:

7) Summary

By adopting the Digital Asset Liquidity Protocol, we aim to provide a decentralized mechanism for peer-to-peer trading of tokenized non-fungible assets in primary and secondary markets. We can extend the core framework to include marketplace services to manage off-chain order books, address front-running issues and adopt prediction market mechanism and zero knowledge proof protocols to incentivize wider network adoption.

This version of the Protocol White Paper is intended for technical review, subject to iterative improvements and not for public dissemination. For comments, questions and feedback please contact us at